9.How are tetracycline excreted?
Tetracycline are excreted mainly by glomerular filtration in renal except minocycline that undergo liver metabolism.
Glucuronidation removes several toxic and potentially toxic chemicals from our system, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, steroid hormones, some nitrosamines, heterocyclic amines, some fungal toxins, and aromatic amines. It also removes "used" hormones, such as estrogen and T4, that are produced naturally by the body. This, glucuronidation represents a major means of converting most drugs, steroids, and many toxic and endogenous substances to metabolites that can then be excreted into the urine or bile.
Tetracycline also undergo enterohepatic circulation. Enterohepatic circulation the cycle in which bile salts and other substances excreted by the liver are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and returned to the liver via the portal circulation. Decrease in renal function and decrease liver function or biliary tract obstruction will increase half life and increase concentration of plasma.
Doxycycline is the safest drug used. It excreted in feces and not accumulated in kidney.
10. Discuss the adverse effects of tetracyclines.
Tetracyclines have their own adverse effect. Gastrointestinal distress may occur when decreasing the uptaking of food. The gastrointestinal may cause epigastric burning and distress, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting and also diarrhea.
Hepatotoxicity may cause the damaging or destroying of liver cells when taken more than 2 gram per day by parenteral. Drugs that are less causes hepatotoxicity such as oxytetracycline and tetracycline. In pregnancy condition, high susceptibility may occur. It may causes jaundice, acidosis, azotemia and irreversible shock.
Photosensitivity and phototoxicity reaction may occur in those taking such drugs of demeclocycline, doxycyxline and tetracycline. Photosensivity is the effect may resemble severe sunburns while phototoxicity is the damage that...