This essay includes my findings from research on the disease, and explains the signs, symptoms, causes, cures and prevention of the pathogen Cholera.
Cholera is a severe bacterial infection caused by the bacterium “Vibrio cholerae”, the most common symptoms of the infection are diarrhoea ,vomiting and muscle cramps, this can lead to rapid dehydration and sometimes death. You can transmit Cholera by water that is contaminated with infected faeces; and also transmit it due to poor food hygiene1. Cholera kills an estimated 120,000 people a year2. If the bacteria enter the small intestine, they use their flagella to propel themselves through the lining of the intestinal wall, they produce a toxic protein. One part binds to specific carbohydrate receptors on cell-surface membrane; the toxic part enters the epithelial cells. This causes ion channels to open and Chloride ions flood into the lumen of intestine. Water then follows them into the lumen which causes watery faeces (diarrhoea) and dehydration4.
Because of the improvements in sanitation and hygiene in the last 100 years, Cholera has been wiped out of England and much of the rest of the world3.
John Snow (1813 – 1858)
A member of the royal college of surgeons, also a member of the royal college of physicians he played a big part in discovering the cause of Cholera.
At the time, it was assumed that cholera was airborne, but he did not believe the ‘miasma’ (bad air) theory. He argued that it entered the body through the mouth. He published these ideas in an essay ‘On the Mode of Communication of Cholera’ in 1849. A few years later, Snow was able to prove his theory in real life circumstances. In August 1854, a cholera outbreak occurred in Soho. After careful investigation Snow plotted cases of cholera on a map of the area; and identified a water pump in Broad (now Broadwick) Street as the source of the disease. He had the...