1(a).Describe the von Neumann programmable machine model
Von Neumann architecture is a design model for a stored program digital computer that uses a
central Processing unit (C.P.U.) and a single separate storage structure -‘memory’ to hold both
instructions and data. The central processing unit comprises of control unit (C.U.) and
arithmetic logic unit (A.L.U.)The A.L.U. operates on binary data while the C.U. interprets
instructions from the memory and handlesInput-output operations. Data and instructions are
stored in the same read write memory.
(b).short comparative notes on ISA and PCI bus specifications
* Has an 8mhz clock rate Has a clock rate of 33 or 66Mhz
* Has a maximum data rate of 8mbps Has a data rate of 132 Mbps
* Has a relatively large slot than PCI Has a relatively shorter slot
* Has a bus width of 8 or 16 bits Has a bus width of 64 bits
2(a).internal organization of the hard disc storage medium
A hard disc consists of one or more circular platter which either or both surfaces are coated with
a Magnetic substance for recording data. Each surface has a read-write head that examines or
alters the recorded data. Each platter is divided into thin concentric bands known as tracks. The
tracks are further divided into sectors, which are the smallest physical storage unit on a disc. A
group of tracks with same track number but on different platters are known as a cylinder.
(b).hierarchical memory organization
In order to achieve the best performance the memory has to keep up with the processor
speeds.Fast, powerful CPUs need quick and easy access to large...