According to Mary Parker Follet (1941), “getting things done through people” is management (p. 23). Management is thought to have no set definition, but different authorities on management have different views on it.
There are many theories on management. The Scientific Management (SM) of Taylor, Administrative Management of Fayol and Bureaucratic Organization of Weber are some examples. The Human Relations (HR) movement of Mayo along with others like Roethsilberger and Dickson and the Behavorial schools of Maslow, McGregor, Herzberg and Argyris are more modern examples.
The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the differences between the
theories of SM and HR. The basis of contrast and comparison will be the standard worker and the views of these schools of thought on handling and controlling the workforce as well as the workplace and the different ways in which they get things done through people.
Frederick Winslow Taylor was an engineer who advocated the concept of Industrial Efficiency. Taylor is known as the Father of Scientific Management and is credited as being one of the most successful management consultants of his time. He is most famous for his Time and Motion Study and the Piece Rate system. Elton Mayo was the Director of the Department of Industrial Research at Harvard University. He is known as the founder of the HR movement theory. Mayo’s involvement in the famous Hawthorne Studies led to this movement (Donnelly, R., 2000).
According to Taylor, the working practices of his day proved to be barriers to increased output instead of facilitating the same. His method of quantifying work, failure of management in directing the workers to full efficiency, and workers’ restriction of output in order to protect their interests, also known as soldiering, were seen by Taylor as the main obstacles to maximum productivity (Pugh, D., 1996).
In his study done on SM, Donnelly (2008) explains that the principal object of management should be to...