Negroes were involuntary immigrants who were brought to America as early as 1619, and their presence has deeply influenced American society.
Although the Declaration of Independence, adopted on the 4th of July, 1776, proclaims that the function of government is to guarantee the unalienable rights with which men are endowed, including “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”, the Negroes were excluded from these rights.
In the Southern states they remained slaves until the Civil War (1861 – 1865). At the end of the Civil War, after the abolition of slavery, there were about 4 million Negroes in the United States and they were given the opportunity to attend schools, study and compete with the Whites.
In the South, however, the Whites tried to prevent their equality in social, economic and political life through secret terrorist organizations such as Ku-Klux-Klan.
As racial prejudice existed both in the North and the South, the Negro leaders tried to establish Negro colleges and schools in the towns, where the Negroes were most highly concentrated.
Since 1954 there has been no legal segregation in public education, employment or housing.
The musical culture of the Negroes has always been very rich and the distinctive rhythms of their blues, jazz and spirituals are known all over the world.
1672 – new company was established = The Royal African Company
1831 – Nat Tylor´s rebellion – Abolitionist movement, Civil War
1901 – black organization was established, called NAACP = National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (against racial discrimination)
1960 – some movements were radical, e.g. Black Panthers
Opposite stream – Martin Luther King (had the same ideas like Tolstoj = passive resistance)
- one activist W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes – a poet, in a poem “I, Too” = black people form American culture, society (they’re its part)
Distinctive features of African-American...