Developmental psychology is the scientific study of psychological emotional perception changes that occur in a human over the course of a life span. Originally developmental psychology was focus on infants and children, however expended to include adolescence and adult’s development and aging.
Developmental psychology includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual's behaviour, and environmental factors including the culture s/he was educated and or lives in, and the impact on development.
Although developmental psychology is a wide range of a person’s human development it has also been study on a more narrowly basis for additional research among them are Among them are Erik Erikson's Eight stages of psychosocial development and Jean Piaget: Theory of cognitive development.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle. These stages are
• Hope: Trust vs. Mistrust (Infants, Birth to 12-18 Months)
• Will: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Toddlers, 18 mo. to 3 years)
• Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool, 3 to 6 years)
• Competence: Industry vs. Inferiority (Childhood, 6 to 12 years)
• Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 12 to 18 years)
• Love: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adults, 19 to 40 years)
• Care: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood, 40 to 65 years)
• Central tasks of Middle Adulthood
• Wisdom: Ego Integrity vs. Despair (seniors, 65 years onwards)....