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Environmental Problem Of Phytic Acid Essay

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In many European countries, phosphorus pollution is of serious concern in areas with large livestock populations and scarce land and water resource (Cromwell et al.,1995). Monogastric animals such as fish, chickens, pigs, and humans lack the digestive enzymes necessary for efficient hydrolysis and utilization of phytate. Reports of phytate utilization by poultry range from zero to greater than 50% (Ravindran et al., 1995). Swine are able to utilize 30% to 60% of phytate phosphorus in commercial diets (Noland et al., 1968). Therefore, the abundant phosphorus in seed-based dietary components is largely unavailable for uptake and hence their waste contains relatively high amount of phosphorous.
      Poultry and swine manure containing phytate phosphorus is commonly applied to fields and croplands as a nutrient-rich fertilizer. Soil microorganisms degrade phytate, releasing inorganic phosphate which can accumulate in the soil. During periods of rainfall, phosphorus-enriched water washes from fertilized lands into lakes, streams, and bays. Since phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for aquatic plant growth, phytoplankton populations can increase in number. As organisms such as algae proliferate on the surface, less sunlight is available to submerged plants for photosynthesis and therefore oxygen evolution (Brewer, 1988). Upon decomposition of the large plant and algal biomass, remaining oxygen is depleted by aerobic bacteria. As a result, populations of invertebrates such as molluscs and aquatic insects decrease. Hypoxic conditions and decreased food supplies eventually result in the death of fish and other animals. Once organisms from other trophic levels are eliminated, algae and odor-producing anaerobic bacteria dominate the system (Brewer, 1988).
    The conversion of a clear, oxygen-rich body of water to a stagnant, hypoxic environment by eutrophication is a gradual process. However, sudden responses to high phosphate levels can also occur. Recently, increasing...

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