One of the highest talked about topics in the world is genetic engineering.
Is it good, is it bad? Some people disregard its possible uses in modern day culture. As many people support it as the answer to problems such as world hunger and disease. Unfortunately many people don’t even know what is done to modify these plants and animals. While at the same time that is all they think we are manipulating, plants and animals, and this is where they are incorrect. Genetic Engineering manipulates a whole list of subjects from as big as Vaccines for many diseases, and biotransformation of toxic wastes to harmless products, to as small as protein engineering of laundry detergent. I am writing to tell you how it is done starting with plants, the simpler of the two, and then move into animals.
Genetic engineering of plants is much easier than it is with animals, because there is already a transformation system in plants, if you take a leaf you can regrow the whole plant, and plant transformation and regeneration are pretty easy for a variety of plants.
The soil bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens can get in wounded plant tissue, transferring a large Ti plasmid to the plant cell. Part of the Ti plasmid some how gets into the chromosome of the plant. The part of the plasmid that gets in contains genes for the synthesis of food for the bacterium, and plant hormones. Genes from the Ti plasmid that are in the plant chromosome are expressed at high levels in the plant. Overproduction of the plant hormones leads to continuous growth of the infected cells, causing plant tumors. Rapid, cancerous growth of tumor things is advantageous to the bacterium because more food gets produced.
So the Ti plasmid has been genetically modified by deleting the genes involved in the production of bacterial food and of plant hormones, and inserting a gene that can be used as a selectable marker. Selectable marker genes generally are coding for proteins involved in breakdown of medicine. Any...