1. The term "consumer" refers to an individual who buys goods and services for personal use. The consumer makes the decision on whether to purchase a product or not; thus the consumer is the target of marketing strategies. From an economic perspective, consumer needs control the demands for goods and services. These needs may include unique wants, wishes and desires, as well as emotional attachments towards products and services.
• People make purchases to satisfy different kinds of needs.
• Focus groups and customer-centered research are the companies’ primary ways to determine consumer needs, attitudes and behavior.
• New ideas and strategies for products and services surface when accurate consumer needs are obtained and analyzed.
• Consumers may operate in fixed buying patterns without giving them much thought. However, they may also make adjustments in their purchasing behavior depending on their needs and other personal factors. Initial purchasing decisions may be random, but there is always some meaning beneath each decision.
2. there are 5 alternative concepts under which organisations may conduct their marketing activities: the production concept, product, selling and societal marketing concepts.
1. THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT:
the philosophy that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable, that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency.
2. THE PRODUCT CONCEPT:
the idea that consumers favor products that offer the most quality, performance and features, and that the organisation should therefore devote its energy into making continuous product improvements; a detailed version of the new product idea.
3. THE SELLING CONCEPT:
the idea that consumers wont buy enough of the organisations products unless the organisation undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort.
4. THE MARKETING CONCEPT:
achieving organisational goals...