History 101: Chapter 5 Greece and Iran, 1000-303 B.C.E.
Democracy- a system of government in which all citizens have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in Greek city- state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries.
Sacrifice- a gift given to a deity, often with the aim of creating a relationship, gaining favor, and obligating the god to provide some benefits to the sacrifice, sometimes in order to sustain the deity and thereby guarantee the continuing vitality of the natural world.
Ptolemies- the Macedonian dynasty, descending from one of Alexander the Great’s officers that ruled Egypt for three centuries. From their magnificent capital at Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, the Ptolemies largely took over the system.
Trireme- Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers.
Socrates- Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethnics and human behavior.
Zoroastrianism- a religion originating on ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity.
Polis- The Greek term for a city- state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic from of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions settled by Greeks.
Hoplite- a heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close- packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies- militias composed of middle- and upper class citizens supplying their own equipment were for centuries superior to all other military forces.
Satrap- the governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often relative of the king.
Hellenistic Age- Historians...