MIGRATION IN AFRICA
A phenomenon that has raised much concern on the local front as well as the international society at large is migration. Human migration is the physical movement by humans from one area to another. The migration phenomenon has created in its wake, the contributions, as well as the problems that immigration, emigration, and rural-urban migration poses in socio economic development of countries.
Migration is not a modern phenomenon, even before colonization, Europeans made several travels to other continents of their interest. According to Baker and Tade (1995), migration resulted in the creation of structured, organized and complete societies, within the new colonized territories. In Northern America for example, the new industrialized world, advanced immensely due to the fact that there was a complete absence of heritage as compared to its original place in Europe.
The decision to migrate before the era of European colonization was not always voluntary. The greatest outward regional movements of people in all of history, was that of Africans, during the slave trade era of the 16th to the 19th century, to the Americas and the Caribbean. Africa was a platform on which movements of people were carried out enormously (Baker and Tade, 1995). Slave trading was not the only instances were people were forced to relocate, human trafficking and ethnic cleansing, have led to the movement of substantial amounts of people from their original societies to new areas. According to Ernest Taylor of IOM Accra, in Ghana, child trafficking may be partially connected to child fostering. Child fostering was also on the rise in the Volta region of Ghana due to female labor migration. The Ghana Demographic And Health Survey 1998, estimated the percentage of children migrants who work for their relatives and non-relatives to be 15.3% (Anarfi and Kwankye, 2003).
Although migration is not necessarily a recent phenomenon, the increasing rate of...