Hassan. A. Elmi
Children: reducing mortality
The W.H.O reports more than 7.6 million children under the age of five die every year. Two thirds of these early deaths could be prevented with simple affordable interventions. The leading causes of deaths are pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, and other health problems during the first month of life. Children in low income countries are nearly 18 times more likely to die compared to children in high income countries.
The first 28 days of life is the highest period that a child could die. Safe birth and effective neonatal are important to prevent these deaths. 40% of deaths under the age of five take place during the neonatal period. Preterm birth, birth asphyxia (lack of breathing at birth) and infections cause most neonatal deaths. After the first month of life and through the first five years of life, the main causes of death are pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Malnutrition is the underlying factor in over one third of all child deaths, making children more vulnerable to severe disease.
About three quarters of child mortality occur in Africa and South-East Asia. Within countries child mortality is higher in rural and among the poor who cannot afford health care. The first 24 hours of life is very crucial, about a half of all death in the neonatal period occurs within 48 hours immediately after birth. This is a time when the mother and the child should receive follow-up care to prevent and treat illness.
At the time of birth, a baby’s chance of survival increases significantly with the presence of a skilled birth attendant. After birth, the following cares are essential: ensuring the baby is breathing, starting the newborn on exclusive breast feeding immediately, keeping the baby warm, and making sure to wash hands before touching the baby.
Malnutrition is the most underlying factor on which kid will survive or which will be a victim of a treatable infection. About 20 million children...