Based on hofstede’s suggestions rituals and heroes layers exist. Rituals are about greeting ways or respecting to others and heroes are dead or alive persons whom can be real or imaginary and have high characteristics in a culture and therefore are kind of behaviour .in spite of that, trompenaars and Hampden turner just suggest one layer which is norms and values.
The main aspect of this concepts is the supposition that implied culture values attitudes which leads to specific behavioural patterns (comper also kluckhohn 1951 and hall 1990) so national culture and other aspects of culture like corporate culture or professional culture should be distinguished (shane 1995.5.luk.1997.pp.13-14 trompenaars and hampden-turner 1997 p.7,hofstede 2001,p.10)despite national culture said to be changing in fast rate of globalizing world, researchers are still can survey significant differences in national cultures(e.g adler and graham 1989)
Customer loyalty in third party logistics relationships: findings from By David L. Cahill, 2007
Hofstede’s cultural frame work is as followed:
(1) Power distance. In these societies power distributed unequally
(2) Uncertainty avoidance. People are uncomfortable with uncertainty
(3) Individualism. It happens when people prefer their own immediate family over social individuals. Collectivism is about a society which social frameworks are tighter.
(4) Masculinity. A society in which masculine norms are more preferable than feminine norms like relationships, modesty and caring
Are Hofstede’s and Schwartz’s Value frameworks congruent?
S. I. Julie A. Lee and G.N. Soutar, 2006
Based on trompenaars ideas Cultural varieties are mostly in you. For instance
All of the people can loos face and it is not just for Orientals. When one person recognize others point of view as a part of her/his, can see the Real understanding of Cultural differences, when one feels this way you he or she
Won’t disrespect other cultures.