5.2 ENERGY BALANCE

5.2.1 Introduction

Energy balance in the production of fructosyltransferase the determination of heat being released and absorbed during the reactions.

The heat capacity equation at any constant pressure is;

(J/mol.K)

From that we can calculate the enthalpy change that is given by, ∆Ĥ =

Then the molar flow rate is given by,

Ni= No= Flowrateconcentrationmolecular weight

The general balance equation of the energy at steady state is

Q = ∆H + W where Q = heat absorbed or released

∆H = enthalpy change

W = work done

5.2.2 Seed Fermenter

Based on the chemical properties handbook, the Cp of water, ammonia and carbon dioxide are as follow:

Table 3.2 Heat capacity, Cp for water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide

Component | | Cp= A+ BT + CT2 + DT3 + ET4 [T(K)] | |

| A | B | C | D | E |

Water | 92.053 | -3.9953x10-2 | -2.1103x10-4 | 5.3467x10-7 | - |

Ammonia | -182.157 | 3.3618 | 1.4398x10-2 | 2.0371x10-5 | - |

Carbon dioxide | 27.437 | 4.2315x10-2 | -1.9555x10-5 | 3.9968x10-9 | -2.9872x10-13 |

Since the value of Cp for biomass, sucrose and fructosyltransferase is not obtainable from the chemical properties handbook, therefore it should be calculated as follow:

From modified Kopp’s rule,

The specific heat capacity for each atom are:

C = 10.98 J/mol.K

H = 7.56 J/mol.K

O = 13.42 J/mol.K

N = 18.74 J/mol.K

Cp for sucrose is

Cp = 1(10.98) + 1.83(7.56) + 0.916 (13.42)

= 37.1075 J/mol.K

Cp for product is

Cp = 1(10.98) + 2.09(7.56) + 0.53(13.42) + 0.275(18.74)

= 39.0465 J/mol.K

Cp for biomass is

Cp = 1(10.98) + 1.46(7.56) + 0.385(13.42) + 0.23(18.74)

= 31.4945 J/mol.K

To calculate heat capacity, ∆H = T1T2Cp dT