Sensory memory has 3 ways of being stored, one way is by touch and feel, this is referred to as the haptic way of remembering things, another way is by things we hear, this is called the echoic store, one more way is by the things we see, this is called the iconic store. George Sperling did a free recall experiment to prove the existence of the iconic memory, using a matrix with three rows of three letters. Participants of the study were asked to look at the letters, for a brief period of time, and then recall them immediately afterwards. This technique, called "free recall" showed that participants were able to, on average, recall 4-5 letters of the 9 they were given.
Short term memory has a capacity of 5-9 items (according to George Millers research) at any one time Peterson & Peterson did an experiment to test the duration of the Short Term Memory. Peterson and Peterson showed participants a trigram - a set of 3 consonant letters, such as ADW. Next, they were given a delay between recall in which they were required to perform an interference task, such as counting down in 3’s from a number, which would reduce the chances of them using techniques to rehearse the data and remember it better. The delay between being shown the trigram and asked to recall it varied between participants - one of the following intervals: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds. There are 3 main types of encoding in the Short Term Memory, one of these is acoustic coding which is the sound of a stimulus, and another is visual coding which is the physical appearance of a stimulus. There is also semantic coding, the meaning of the stimulus. Conrad concludes that encoding in short term memory is mainly acoustically.
Long term memory can hold limitless amount of information, Baddeley prove that long term memory is mainly stored semantically by constructing ten words into four categories, acoustically similar words, these are words that sound the same, acoustically...