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Mendel And Genetics Essay

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Below is an essay on "Mendel And Genetics" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

• A lot of what we know about heredity can be traced to Gregor Mendel
• Often called the ‘father of genetics’ Mendel was one of the first scientists to apply mathematics to scientific investigations.
• He did most of his work with the pea plant, Pisum Sativum. He chose pea plants for the following reasons:
o They are self pollinating (still produce sexually)
o The grow easily and mature quickly, producing many seeds
o Display obvious, contrasting physical traits. Ex. seed shape, plant height, seed colour...
• These physical, observable traits are called the phenotype

Mendel’s Experiments
• Mendel first developed pure lines or pure breed plants
• He controlled his experiments by making sure he was crossing pure bred plants that were different for only one contrasting trait
Parent Generation (PG)
F₁ Generation (Filial)
F₂ Generation
Pure tall & pure dwarf All tall
(monohybrides) F₁ Cross
Monohybrid cross 75% tall
25% dwarf
3:1 phenotypic ratio
Law of Segregation
• We know now that the units of inheritance are ______(a sequence of DNA) and that different forms of genes are called alleles
• Mendel suggested that each plants phenotype was determined by a pair of alleles (one on each homologous chromosome)
• Mendel used upper case letters to represent the dominant allele and lower case letters to represent the recessive allele.
o The allele for tallness is T , while the dwarf allele is t
• The genetic make up for a trait is called the genotype.
• When the alleles are the same, the genotype is described as homozygous, and when they are different heterozygous.
Genotype Phynotype
TT Tall
Tt Tall
tt dwarf
Explaining Mendel with Meiosis
Mendel’s law of segregation: members of a pair of alleles for a given trait are segregated when gametes are forms
Generation Genotype Phenotype
F TT x tt Tall x dwarf
F₁ Tt All tall
F₂ Tt x Tt
TT, tt, Tt, Tt 75% tall, 25% short

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