One of the major problems and questions that rise between social scientists is the topic of intelligence. I first came across certain studies of intelligence during a psychology class in high school. While there were many different psychologists studying this topic and giving their input, there was one psychologist that stuck out in my mind. His name was Alfred Binet. His biggest recognition comes from developing the first intelligence test. Later on, his colleagues, along with Binet’s work, contributed to the development of the first IQ test. An IQ, or intelligence quotient, is the ratio between mental age and chronological age. The results were there used to distinguish between gifted, normal, and below average children. This process helped many countries of Western Europe dictate who was fit to serve in the Army. Soon enough, Lewis Terman of Stanford University brought the IQ test to the United States. Many developments and versions later, these IQ tests are established in many educational practices throughout the United States and Europe (Gardner 299-300).
Before I dive further into intelligences and intelligence theories, I should probably define intelligence. According to Merriam-Webster, the definition of intelligence “the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations” (Webster). While the word intelligence can be succumbed to this little definition, the actual idea of intelligence is very deep and broad. One of the most popular and intriguing debates on intelligence is whether or not intelligence is inherited? While I will not get too into this question, Terman suggests that intelligence is innate and one cannot do much about their predetermined intellectual abilities (Gardner 300-301).
A theory I will talk about is Howard Gardner’s theory on multiple intelligences. Gardner viewed intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings...