1a) The main belief in idealism is that the structure of reality comes before everything else. Plato is one of the most recognized idealists. He believes that everything in this world receive their characteristics from the forms. the basis of human knowledge in plato's opinion comes from our knowledge of the forms. although idealists like plato believe in the existance of matter in this world, they consider the basis of everything in this world to be the forms. On the other hand materialists consider matter to be the basis. Materialist philosophers have to explain everything in this world without assuming that there is a force or entity that existed before this universe and brings order to the universe. materialist philosophers have to explain how things like human knowledge and consciousness, which are considered immateral, can exist if the basis of everything is the matter. lucretius is a well-known materialist.
b) plato is an idealist. he considers the basis of reality to be the forms. for everything in this world that exists, there is an ideal form which is not physical or visible, but can be understood through reasoning. the forms have more reality than physical things and are are responsible for the existance of everything in this world. a beautiful flower for example takes and shares its beauty from the form "beauty itself."
Lucretius is a materialist. he accounts the basis of things to be the matter. he talks about atoms and void. he believes that this universe is composed of an infinite number of atoms and an infinite quantity of void.he believes that atoms move continuously (downward and swerve). there are also different shapes of atoms (smooth, rough, and hooked) which makes possible the existance of different materials.
descartes is an idealist. he believes in the existance of a perfect God. He thinks that a continuous force of existance should exist to support us in this world and that force is also responsible for our creation as well. he...