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Personality And Its Transformations Essay

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Below is an essay on "Personality And Its Transformations" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

The behavioural perspective is recognised as having been established by J, Watson (1930). Concerned with the principles of objective scientific research, Watson rejected the notion of internal psychological phenomena as this could not be measured empirically. All Watson was interested in was observable external phenomena, which meant behaviour. The emphasis that Watson and behaviourism put on the concept of learning was one that was entirely concerned with environmental factors. This positioned the individual as a learning vessel absorbing information from the environment. However, the role of that individual was argued within the field of behaviourism. Essentially, the individual can be seen as one of agency within the environment or one of a patiency to the environment. This is the essential distinction between the two behaviourist approaches to learning that are known as classical conditioning and operant conditioning.  
            Research into classical conditioning was outlined by physiologist Pavlov (Meill et al, 2002). Pavlov noted dogs’ behaviour with regard to certain stimuli. Using the dogs’ biological response to hunger (i.e. salivation), Pavlov outlined the process of conditioned learning and introduced the world of behavioural science to some new and measurable concepts. He suggested that a dogs’ reflex to hunger could be conditioned through a contingency with an unrelated neutral stimulus. Essentially, pairing the noise of a bell, which was deemed the neutral stimulus, with the introduction of food, which was deemed the unconditional stimulus, the dog would learn to associate the bell with food due to familiarity. This response was called the conditional response and the bell was subsequently deemed the conditional stimulus. In this model of classical conditioning, we can see that the personality is defined as a constant modification of learned behaviour caused by environmental correlations that can be manipulated by the environment itself....

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