Personality – An Overview
Personality: The psychological qualities that influence and individual’s characteristic behaviour patterns, in a stable and distinctive manner. It helps you describe your characteristics and how you differ from others.
Psychometrics: The systematic testing, measurement and assessment of intelligence, aptitudes and personality. There are two main types:
• Nomothetic - Based on self reporting methods. Looks for universal laws of behaviour. Most psychometric tests are nomothetic.
• Idiographic - Open ended questioning strategies
Aptitude and intelligence can be tested. Personality should be assessed.
Defining personality: Personality theory deals with behaviour patterns that are consistent and stable over time. However, it is sometimes difficult to measure as people may behave differently in different social contexts. Personality also deals with traits that are distinct (ie: not traits that you share with everyone else).
Nature vs Nurture: Some psychologists believe personality is genetically inherited while others believe it is acquired through observation of environmental, cultural and social factors. For example, every society has different ways of doing things, which cannot be attributed to genetic predisposition.
Personality Type: A descriptive label for a distinctive pattern of personality characteristics.
Personality Trait: A relatively stable quality or attribute of an individual’s personality, influencing behaviour in a particular direction. Eg: Shyness, excitability, reliability, etc.
Traits tend to cluster in systematic patterns - personality types. Individuals belong to types, but traits belong to individuals.
Hippocrates: One of the first personality theorists around 400BC. He believed that type was determined by body humours. Eg:
Body Humour Temperament Behaviours
Blood Sanguine confident, cheerful, optimistic
Carl Jung: 1875 – 1961. Approach based on psychological...