Study Guide Exam 3 PSY 131: Chapter 9, 11- 13
Chapter 9: Group Processes
1) Group: Three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs/goals cause them to influence each other
2) Social Roles: Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
3) Social Facilitation: The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated; presence of others causes alertness (arousal)
4) Deindividuation: The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people cannot be identified. Getting lost in a crowd can lead to an unleashing of behaviors that we would never dream of doing by ourselves.
5) Process Loss: Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
6) Transactive Memory: The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual.
7) Groupthink: A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner; flawed view rather than truth. Signs of groupthink involve: pressure toward conformity, illusion of invulnerability and sense of moral superiority, illusion of unanimity
8) Group Polarization: The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members. (Ex. Groups of young people will often do stupid things that they later bitterly regret).
9) Great Person Theory: The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
10) Transactional Leaders: Leaders who set clear, short-tem, goals and reward people who meet them
11) Contingent Theory of Leadership: The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has...