Context,culture and style.
What the speaker means somehow depend on context. In language, what the speaker means is important to established the sentences. Context devided into wide context and narrow context . wide context concern any contextual information that is relevan to determining the speaker’s intention. Narrow context concerned information speifically relevant to determining the semantic values of context sensitive expression.
Language have diectics which identify object , person and event s in terms of their relation to the speaker in space and time. There are three main types of diectic, there are:
• The speaker must be able to identify the participants in the discourse-himself and the persons to whom he is speaking.
• English has here and there , this and that to distinguish between the position of the speaker or closeness to it and other position or greater distance. The exact spatial relationship indicated by such words will vary according to the language.
• Time relation are indicated in english not only by general adverb such as now and then but also by more specific ones such as yesterday and tomorrow.
Diectics cannot be ignored in the study of meaning, for ordinary language is full of their use.
Another very important aspect of context is that provided by social relations. It is often not enough for the speaker to be able to identify the person to whom he is speaking ; he must , in many languages also indicated quite clearly the social relations between himself and this person.
There are other characteristic of the context that affect the choise of language. Crystal and Davy (1969:71-6) have suggested three main features of style—PROVINCE,STATUS & MODALITY. Province is concerned with occupation and proffesional activity such as the language of law,science and advertising etc. Status deals with social relation but specially in the terms of of the formality of language and the use of polite and...