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War And Security Essay

  • Submitted by: ahamdan
  • on December 6, 2011
  • Category: History
  • Length: 319 words

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Below is an essay on "War And Security" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

• Check spiral
• Alliances make war MORE likely
o They generate counter alliances and arms races
o Audience costs
o Permanent alliances reduce the number of potential coalitions against the aggressors
o Selection cost
 States select themselves into alliances when they feel they are going to war.
• Definitions
• Alliances: a formal agreement among a limited number of countries concerning the conditions under which they will or will not employ military force.
• Types of Alliances:
o Defense pact
 Only if you’re attacked.
o Neutrality/ non aggression pact
 Will stay neutral at all times. Not one or the other.
o Entente
 Will follow***…
• Some Empirical Findings
o Levy (1981) found that most alliances are followed by war
o Siverson and King (1979) show that alliances lead to the expansion of smaller wars into larger ones.
o Bremer (1992) found that allies are more likely to fight because that are most likely to be neighbors
 Highly militarized allies are more likely to fight each other.
 Allies are more likely to fight each other.
• The Jack Levy’s Study
o He focuses on Great Powers (GP) from 1495-1975
o Interstate wars involving at least one GP.
 (119 total, 64 with GP’s on both sides)
o Question: Are alliances necessary and /or sufficient for war?
• Number of Alliances Over Time ****GET GRAPH***
16th cent. 17th 18th 19th



• Sufficient Condition
o Every X (alliance) will be followed by Y (war)
o Some wars may occur when there is no X (alliance)
• Necessary Condition
o Every war (Y) will be preceded by an Alliance (X)
o Some alliances (X) may not lead to war.
• Levy’s Conclusions
o Most alliances were followed by war within 5 years (except the 19th century)
 Thus alliance is a near sufficient condition for war in most centuries
o However, most wars were not preceded by alliances
 Alliances are not a necessary condition for war.
• Table 1.8

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