· “Jainism is the oldest living monastic discipline in India. The Jain tradition is traced to Vardhamana Mahavira who challenged the existing Hindu practices. Jainism has 24 Tirthankara. The Jain’s are strictly vegetarian. Jainism embraces the doctrine of non-violence” (Chitrabhanu, 1980). Ahisma is a Buddhist and Hindu practice that express a belief in the sacredness of all life and teaches the avoidance of violence and doing harm to any living creature (Chitrabhanu, 1980). Jainism embraces asceticism concerning eating and sexual behavior to achieve religious ends (Chitrabhanu, 1980). Jainism does not believe in a God who is responsible for the creation of the universe (Chitrabhanu, 1980). The Jains belief that every person has the can become a God by removing attachments and aversions from ones life therefore, many Gods exist. The liberation of the soul from attachments and aversions constitutes the major philosophy of Jainism.
· “Sikhism is the youngest of the world’s major monotheistic religions” (Takhar, 2005). Sikhism tradition is traced to Guru Nanak who challenged the existing Hindu practices. Sikhism has 10 Gurus. Sikhs are not vegetarian. Sikhism rejects the doctrine of Ahisma (non-violence). They see it as a moral weakness and betrayal of religious requirements. Righteous intervention may require force (Takhar, 2005). Sikhism rejects asceticism concerning severe practices which are viewed as irrelevant to spiritual development” (Takhar, 2005). .Sikhism is a “monotheistic religion believes in a God who is responsible for the creation of the universe” (Takhar, 2005).
While India was giving birth to Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, three other major East Asia religions were developing these are: (1) Taoism, (2) Confucianism and (3) Shintoism. Taoism and Confucianism grew largely in China, and later spread to Japan and Korea; Shintoism is distinctively Japanese.
Taoism: The Way of Nature and Immortality
· Tao (pronounced “Dow”)...